Research Assistant Professor, Social Environment and Health Program
As an environmental epidemiologist and with funding from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the National Science Foundation, and Detroit community input, I study how social, economic, health, and built environment characteristics and/or air quality affect vulnerability to extreme heat and extreme precipitation. This research will help cities understand how to adapt to heat, heat waves, higher pollen levels, and heavy rainfall in a changing climate.
I received my BA in Biology from the University of Chicago, with a specialization in Ecology and Evolution. Subsequently, I worked as a research assistant in the Clinical Trials Office at the Karmanos Cancer Institute in Detroit, MI before pursing a Masters in Public Health at the University of Michigan. I completed my MPH in 2008 and then completed my PhD in 2013 in the University of Michigan Department of Environmental Health Sciences, where I was a National Institute on Aging Public Health and Aging trainee. My dissertation focused on associations between high temperatures and hospital admissions and mortality among the elderly as well as sociodemographic and land cover characteristics that modify these associations. In my postdoctoral fellowships, I studied how social and environmental characteristics influence vulnerability to heat-related health effects, using data from longitudinal studies of cardiovascular health in seven U.S. cities as well as state and national records of severe health events.
Assessing the Neuropsychological Benefits of Weatherization Programs
Modifications to homes that increase energy efficiency and improve indoor temperatures may reduce the health impacts of extreme temperatures and financial stress. We will characterize and monetize the health impacts of low-cost and higher-cost weatherization measures, which may improve the health of older adults through improvements to sleep, cognitive function, and financial worry as well as community-wide reductions in air pollution exposure. Weatherization interventions may allow older adults to both mitigate and adapt to extreme weather.
Climate Change and Allergies (Institute for Global Change Biology)
With climate change, pollen levels are rising in many parts of the country. Using a new daily speciated pollen model, we are estimating the onset and time course of allergy and asthma symptoms in people with allergies as well as associations between asthma emergency department visits and different species of pollen in the Industrial Midwest.
Energy Justice, Housing and Health in a Changing Climate (M-Cubed, with Tony Reames and Marie O’Neill)
Low and moderate income households face increasing challenges regarding household energy insecurity. Additionally, a changing climate with increased extreme weather may exacerbate weather-related health effects, This project aims to characterize and map the health and economic burdens of housing quality, air pollution, and energy insecurity
Causal Mechanisms for Sustainable Adaptation to Adverse Heat and Precipitation Health Effects
Wide socioeconomic disparities exist in weather-associated morbidity and mortality. Using novel data linkages while working with local officials and community leaders to understand the housing and health characteristics that increase vulnerability to heat-and precipitation-associated health effects will help identify optimal and sustainable strategies for adapting to increasing extreme weather events
- Gronlund CJ, Cameron L, Shea C, O’Neill MS. Assessing the magnitude and uncertainties of the burden of selected diseases attributable to extreme heat and extreme precipitation under a climate change scenario in Michigan for the period 2041-2070. Environ Health, Accepted.
- Gronlund CJ, Sullivan K. Kefelgn Y, Cameron L, O’Neill MS. Climate change and temperature extremes: a review of heat- and cold-related morbidity and mortality concerns of municipalities. Maturitas, 2018, 114:54-59. DOI: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2018.06.002
- Gronlund CJ, Sheppard L, O’Neill MS, Adar S, Auchincloss A, Kaufman J, Lima JA, Madrigano J, Diez Roux AV. Vulnerability to the cardiovascular effects of summer heat in six U.S. cities: Results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Epidemiology, 2018. Epidemiology. 2018 Nov;29(6):756-764. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000910.
- Gronlund CJ, Zanobetti A, Wellenius GA, Schwartz JD, O’Neill MS. Vulnerability to renal, heat and respiratory hospitalizations during extreme heat among U.S. elderly. Climatic Change, 2016, 136(3):631-645. DOI: 10.1007/s10584-016-1638-9.
- Gronlund CJ, Berrocal VJ, White-Newsome JL, Conlon KC, O’Neill MS. Vulnerability to extreme heat by individual characteristics and area green space and socio-demographic characteristics among the elderly in Michigan, 1990-2007. Environ Res, 2014, 136:449-461. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.08.042.
- Gronlund CJ, Zanobetti A, Schwartz JD, Wellenius GA, O’Neill MS. Heat, heat waves and hospital admissions among the elderly in the United States, 1992-2006. Environ Health Perspect, 2014, 122(11): 1187-1192. DOI:10.1289/ehp.1206132.